Robotics

is a branch of engineering and science that includes mechanical engineering, electronics engineering, computer engineering science, and others. Robotics deals with the design, construction operation, and use of robots as well as computer systems for their control, sensory feedback and information processing.

These technologies area used to develop machines that can substitute for humans and replicate human action.

Robots can be used in any situation and for any purpose, but today many are used in dangerous environments (including bomb detection and deactivation), manufacturing processes, or where humans cannot survive. Robots can take on any form but some are made to resemble humans in appearance. This is said to help in the acceptance of a robot in certain replicative behaviors usually performed by people. Such robots attempt to replicate walking, lifting, speech, cognition, and basically anything a human can do. Many of today’s robots are inspired by nature, contributing to the field of bio-inspired robotics

 

Robotics is a branch of engineering that involves the conception, design, manufacture, and operation of robots. This field overlaps with electronics, computer science, artificial intelligence, mechatronics, nanotechnology and biotechnology.

Asimov suggested three principles to guide the behavior of robots and smart machines. Asimov’s three laws of robotics, as they are called, have survived to the present:

  • Robots must never harm human beings.
  • Robots must follow instructions from humans without violating rule 1.
  • Robots must protect themselves without violating the other rules.

History

In 1942, the science fiction writer Isaac Asimov created his three laws of robotics.

In 1948, Norbert Wiener formulated the principles of cybernetics, the basis of practicals robotics.Fully autonomous only appeared in the second half of the 20th century. The first digitally operated and programmable robot, the Animate, was installed in 1961 to lift hot pieces of metal from a die casting machine and stack them. Commercial and industrial robots are widespread today and used to perform jobs more cheaply, more accurately and more reliably, than humans. They are also employed in some jobs which are too dirty, dangerous, or dull to be suitable for humans. Robots are widely used in manufacturing, assembly, Packing and packaging, mining transport, earth and space exploration, surgery, weaponry, laboratory research, safety, and the mess production of consumer and industrial goods.

 

Applications

  1. Industrial robots– These robots bring into play in an industrialized manufacturing atmosphere. Typically these are articulated arms particularly created for applications like- material handling, painting, welding and others. If we evaluate merely by application then this sort of robots can also consist of some automatically guided automobiles and other robots.
  2. Domestic or household robots– Robots which are used at home. This sort of robots consists of numerous different gears for example- robotic pool cleaners, robotic sweepers, robotic vacuum cleaners, robotic sewer cleaners and other robots that can perform different household tasks. Also, a number of scrutiny and tale-presence robots can also be considered as domestic robots if brought into play in that sort of environment.
  3. Medical robots– Robots employed in medicine and medicinal institutes. First & foremost surgical treatment robots. Also, a number of robotic directed automobiles and perhaps lifting supporters.
  4. Service robots– Robots that cannot be classed into any other types by practice. These could be various data collecting robots, robots prepared to exhibit technologies, robots employed for research, etc.
  5. Military robots– Robots brought into play in military & armed forces. This sort of robots consist of bomb discarding robots, various shipping robots, exploration drones. Often robots at the start produced for military and armed forces purposes can be employed in law enforcement, exploration and salvage and other associated fields.
  6. Entertainment robots– These types of robots are employed for entertainment. This is an extremely wide-ranging category. It begins with model robots such as robosapien or the running photo frames and concludes with real heavy weights like articulated robot arms employed as movement simulators.
  7. Space robots– I would like to distinct out robots employed in space as a split apart type. This type of robots would consist of the robots employed on Canadarm that was brought into play in space Shuttles, the International Space Station, together with Mars explorers and other robots employed in space exploration & other activities.
  8. Hobby and competition robots– Robots that is created by students. Sumo-bots, Line followers, robots prepared merely for learning, fun and robots prepared for contests.
Now, as you can observe that there are a number of examples that fit well into one or more of these types. For illustration, there can be a deep ocean discovery robot that can collect a number of precious information that can be employed for military or armed forces purpose.

 

Components

  • Power source
  • Actuation
  • Electric motors
  • Linear actuators
  • Series elastic actuators
  • Air muscles
  • Muscle wire
  • Electroactive polymers
  • Piezo motors
  • Elastic nanotubes
  • Sensing
  • Touch
  • Vision
  • Other( other common forms of sensing in robotics use lidar, rader, and sonar
  • Manipulation
  • Mechanical grippers
  • Vacuum grippers
  • General purpose effectorsLocomotion
  • Rolling robots
  • Two-wheeled balancing robots
  • One –wheeled balancing robots
  • Sphericals orb robots
  • Six-wheeled robots
  • Tracked robots
  • Walking applied to robots
  • ZMP technique
  • Hopping
  • Dynamic balancing (controlled falling)
  • Passive dynamics
  • Other methods of locomotion
  • Flying
  • Snaking
  • Skating
  • Climbing
  • Swimming (piscine)
  • Sailing
  • Environmental interaction and navigation
  • Human-robots interaction
  • Speech recognition
  • Robots voice
  • Gestures
  • Facical expression
  • Artificial emotions
  • Personality
  • Social intelligence
  • Control
  • Autonomy levels
  • Research
  • Dynamics and kinematics
  • Bionics and biomimetics
  • Education and training
  • Career training
  • Certification
  • Summer robotics camp
  • Robotics competitions
  • Robotics afterschool programs
  • Employment
  • Occupational safety and health implications

 

Categories: TECHNICAL KNOWLEDGE

2 Comments

John Fesenmyer · at 4:04 pm

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